This would ensure the implementation of the whole agreement without the need to identify the powers of ministers in existing legislation. It might be easier than Option 2, since the content of the implementing laws would be concentrated in a bill rather than scattered over a bill and several IS. If the UK and the EU agree on a future relationship agreement, the agreement will have to be ratified. What does that mean? The bill could also be amended, which could lead to problems if the government does not have a reliable majority for all elements of its agreement. Finally, if it turns out that the bill is misusing part of the agreement – and the urgency to complete it could make it more likely – it would be much more difficult to amend an act of Parliament than an IS. On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. In theory, this gives the government the power to ratify the treaty. But the UK has long held the principle that it will not ratify treaties until all the legislation necessary to implement them is in force – and the government has also acknowledged that it must legislate.
 This protocol also includes a unilateral exit mechanism for Northern Ireland: the Northern Ireland Assembly will vote every four years on the continuation of these arrangements, which require a simple majority. These votes take place two months before the end of each four-year period, with the first period beginning at the end of December 2020 (when the transition period is scheduled).  If the Assembly is suspended on that date, the GG vote shall be held. If the Assembly expresses inter-community support in one of these periodic votes, the protocol will apply for the next eight years instead of the usual four years.  However, if the Assembly votes against the continuation of these rules, the UK and the EU will be given two years to adopt new rules.   The agreement also provides for a transitional period that extends to 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adapt to the new situation and the new era, so that the British and European governments can negotiate a new trade agreement between the EU and the UK.  In a debate with the Croatian Secretary of State for European Affairs, Nikolina Brnjac, on behalf of the Presidency of the Council, Commission President Ursula von der Leyen and CHEF negotiator Michel Barnier, Parliament provided an update on the withdrawal process and the challenges ahead.