(a) to keep the global average temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, the potential to significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change; By quantifying the damage done to society by CO2 pollution, Trump sees America as an island apart – and we all know what climate change is doing to the islands. Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the global average temperature increase to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Clarification needed] The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure as opposed to most international environmental treaties that are “top down” , characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  A new issue that has proven to be the centre of gravity of the Paris negotiations is that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or will come too quickly to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to repair such losses and damages and seeks to find appropriate responses.  It is specified that losses and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as land loss at sea level for deep islands.  The United Nations has released a new emissions report that indicates that even if all current climate plans are implemented, temperatures are expected to rise by 3.2 degrees Celsius, which will have even greater and destructive climate effects. Collective ambitions must more than quintuple from current levels to achieve the reductions needed for the 1.5oC target over the next ten years. Now more than ever, it is time for world leaders to act on the climate crisis.
At COP25, WWF will work with U.S. leaders to address the climate crisis to show that the United States will play its part. WWF will host them at the United States Climate Action Center and provide an important venue to showcase their leadership, innovation and cooperation. President Trump is pulling us out of the Paris climate agreement. Looking for a glimmer of air in the unseely UN climate report? Here we can determine the effects of climate change through the political, economic and social choices we are making today. President Obama was able to formally enshrine the United States in the agreement through executive measures because he did not impose new legal obligations on the country.